The UNIVERSAL REFERENCE SYSTEM is a computerized documentation and information retrieval system employing citations of material above a modest level of quality, appearing in all social and behavioral sciences, annotated, and indexed by author. It employs a set of standard descriptors that are arranged according to a master system of topics and methodological techniques, plus various unique descriptors. Products of the URS are made available as an individual service to projects, agencies, scholars, other professionals, and students, and also in published form on subscription and/or general public sale via mail order through channels maintained by The American Behavioral Scientist magazine.
The flow chart on page 4, entitled "The Universal Reference System," shows the numerous steps taken to process documents which come from the intellectual community until they cycle back into the same community as delivered instruments of improved scholarship. The Catalogue mentioned in the chart (Step 18) in illustrated on p. 13. The Index referred to (Step 17) is pictured on p. 14.
Background of the Work
The many fields of social sciences have suffered for a long time from inadequate searching systems and information storage. The rate of development of periodical and book literature is well known to be far beyond the capacities of the existing book form document retrieval services. Thousands of new books appear each year, dealing with society and man. Thousands of journals pour forth articles. Hundreds of periodicals are founded each year.
Countries outside of the United States have gone into the social science, so that the need for making available foreign publications in intelligible form is ever greater. If there is a light year's distance between present capabilities and the best available service in the social sciences, there is an even greater distance to be traversed in bringing into use the material being published in languages other than English.
The international scholarly associations centered mainly in Paris have endeavored, with the help of UNESCO and other sources of aid, to bring out bibliographies and abstracting services. These services are not fully used, because of their format, their incompleteness, their lack of selectivity, their formulation in traditional and conventional terms of the social sciences (slighting the so-called inter-disciplinary subject matters in methodology), and the simple indexing that they employ. Continuous efforts are being made to solve such problems.
A vicious economic cycle is at work in the matter of information retrieval, too: Scholars are students give up research because there are no tools to search with, and therefore their demand for searching tools decreases because they have learned to get along without the materials. That is, the standards of all the social sciences are lowered because of an anticipated lack of success in handling the problems of information retrieval. The economic risk, therefore, of an information retrieval service has to be taken into account: Many professionals are like the Bengal peasant who cannot aid in his own economic development because he cannot conceive of the nature of the problem and has learned to live as a victim outside of it.
A study in the June, 1964, issue of The American Behavioral Scientist magazine shows what the need is today, even before the full capabilities of new systems are appreciated. One-half of a sample of social and behavioral scientists reported that, due to inadequate bibliographic aids, they had discovered significant information on some research too late to use it, and that this information would have significantly affected the scope and nature of their research. In a number of cases, the problem of the researcher was reported to be inadequate access to preexisting materials, and in other cases, was said to be insufficient means of addressing oneself to current material.
So the current ways of information retrieval, or lack thereof, are deficient with respect both to retrospective searching and to current material, not to mention the alarming problem of access to prospective material, in the form of current research project activities and current news of scientific development in relevant categories. (The American Behavioral Scientist also has recently introduced a mechanized reporting of new research projects in the social and behavioral sciences.)
It is important, therefore, to regard the information retrieval idea as one of vast range, that is, as a multipurpose instrument grounded in the social psychology of science, as the highest manifestation of the applied sciences, and as one of the most complex and far-reaching sets of communication instruments, human and mechanical, that has been devised.
diagram (to be supplied later)
One frequently hears the question whether the natural sciences are far ahead of the behavioral sciences with respect to information retrieval, and whether the behavioral sciences can either learn a good deal from such already existing systems, or whether one of the well-financed existing natural science systems under its wing. The answers must be in the negative. Nor should their possibility disturb the prompt creation of the social science system. The natural science are not well advanced in this area. Certain areas, such as Chemical Abstracts, are well developed along highly idiosyncratic lines. In history, notable advances have been made by Historical Abstracts, under Eric Boehm, and the American Political Science Review, under Kenneth Janda.
The Universal Reference System is endeavoring to take an immediately practical view of the literature-access problem, while designing the system so that it will remain open to advance and permit a number of alternations. One must contemplate projects leading to automatic reading and indexing; retrieval of information in the form of propositions, historical dates, and other factual materials; encyclopedic information-providing services; movement into other scientific fields joining social and natural science materials; automatized printing and reproduction of a large variety of materials in quantities ranging from individual to thousands of copies, and provision for televised or other rapid-fire communication from information retrieval centers.
History of the Universal Reference System
The ABS Universal Reference System had its beginnings several years ago in the magazine Political Research: Organization and Design and its successor, The American Behavioral Scientist. The need for an appropriate selection of materials for the younger generation of political scientists was the occasion for the formation of a new bibliography with annotations. The scope of the bibliography was broad in relation to the conventional interest of political scientists. It proved to be a popular feature of the journal, and means were taken at an early date to make it broader than practically any other existing bibliography in Political Science, yet selective as well.
Selectivity proved not to be a great problem, although the scope of the magazine itself rather limited the ability of the bibliography to enter any special field. It was discovered that the number of articles and books from mediocre to superior quality was a minor fraction of all works published in political science.
As time went on, the bibliography, called New Studies, was augmented in number and range to items; finally, with the conversion of the magazine into The American Behavioral Scientist, the target of the bibliography began to be that of presenting each month the best works throughout the whole range of the social and behavioral sciences, with a special emphasis upon methodological works and those of enduring value. The humanities and the philosophy of science came in peripherally. Foreign works were abstracted and noted in much greater frequency than was customary in American bibliographies.
Finally, in 1962-3, the magazine began to index the alphabetized items of the bibliography. Prior to this time, various enthusiasts among the scholar-readers of the ABS had suggested different ways of organizing the bibliography for better use. Some felt that new studies should be placed under disciplinary rubrics. This was not done, they were told, because the ABS intended to be useful to all professional social and educated laymen. Therefore, the ABS could not consent to recognize the categories and special sub-fields in its bibliography as a whole. Furthermore, there was a great inter-disciplinary need to be satisfied.
However, an index was devised by this author, which was based upon his courses in methodology at New York University. The new index contained a large number of topical and methodological entries and was again intended not for the highly specialized researcher, but for the general researcher and reader. Even so, the proportion of scholars who, in their ordinary work, would find the ABS index running to the frontiers of their efforts, would be perhaps over 80% . The tendency generally is to exaggerate the specialism of the bulk of the productive scholars in any given field. Furthermore, it was not intended at that point in time to provide substitutes for the bibliographic work of the highly specialized journals to be found in many sub-fields of the social sciences.
Beginning in 1963, plans were made to computerize the bibliography. There was naturally the thought of moving first from the hand written and typed card to the punched-card system. So far as hand-operated punched-card systems were concerned, the idea was dropped quickly. Sheer numbers of items and the desirability of multiple-factor sorting determined the matter. The decision to move beyond a machine-sorting punched-card system was made only after a great deal of deliberation. Time after time, the designers went back to the possibility of counter-sorter machinery.
Ultimately it was decided that the nature of the complete bibliographic operation in the social and behavioral sciences would soon involve a much larger number of titles than would be readily handled even by the best contemporary card-scanning machines working on punched cards. Most important simultaneous searches seeking in effect to provide multiple bibliographies for different subjects at the same time would not be possible with machinery short of the computer. Therefore, the concept of a computerized multiple-purpose facility was arrived at and the definition of the URS was complete.
The Classification System
The classification used as the basis for the Universal Reference System was devised by this writer. It naturally encounters some of the difficulties inherent in classification system that purport to represent the nature of scientific material over a given scientific body of knowledge.
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It would seem, however to compare favorably with other systems that have been used by libraries, such as the Dewey Decimal System , or devised for libraries or retrieval systems but scarcely employed, such as the Kyle System. The URS classification cuts across various disciplines of social sciences to call attention to the methodological aspects of works which would appear to be important to scholars in the behavioral, instrumental, positivistic tradition of philosophy and science.
The constant recourse to method also serves as a screening device for eliminating substantive materials that are purely evaluative, journalistic, non-empirical, or of an intuitive type. The index contains some 183 Standard Descriptor categories at the present time. To them are added Unique Descriptors as they occur. Some additional categories logically subtending from the existing ones will be added as time goes on. These will be expanded as part of the original coding as the need is shown. (Several categories may be altered, too, on the same grounds.) From two to four of the Standard and Unique Descriptors are selected as most important facets of the work and are indicated as Critical Descriptors (see second column of illustration of Index page.)
The possibilities of utilizing cross-categories are immediate and can be used, either by the searcher or by the responsible directors in the original machine settings of a given bibliography, whenever the problem suggested by the cross-categories is obvious and important. This Cross-Faceting can permit adjusting to changes in the interests of scientists. An almost infinite number of cross-categories is possible, of course. The user of the system will find it set up beyond any existing system to facilitate this. In the future, and upon request complicated cross-category or multi-faceted searches will be performed by the Universal Reference System's machinery. The ultimate instrumental goal is Controlled Faceting-contractible or expansible according to need and logic.
In practice, the Standard Descriptors, the Unique Descriptors, the Critical Descriptors, the Multiple Faceting, and the Cross-Faceting are inter-laced in the operations of documentary analysis and control. Thus, to allow for gaps in the system, to go along with conventional practice, to employ more specialized terms, and to carry important proper nouns, the indexing rules permitted the documentary analyst to add from one to four Unique Descriptors to the Standard Descriptors already taken from the master list. The total number of descriptors finally averaged 20. Of these, several were suppressed in various phases prior to printing.
To take an example, "Nationalism," which is not named in the basic classification's scheme of descriptors, is discoverable under National Groups, Attitudes, and other categories which, all together, would specify Nationalism and very little else. But where Nationalism is the direct and salient subject of the work, the term itself is employed and indexed.
The repetition of numerous descriptors following each index entry serves the purpose of targeting the search precisely. The richness of descriptors also postpones the moment of returning to the catalogue and thus enlarges the marginal utility of the first resort to the catalogue.
The intensive indexing of each document, which ranges from 10 to 20 entries, serves a purpose. Intensive indexing permits a document to exhibit all of its important facets to the searcher. The ratio of index carriage to title carriage is here termed the "carriage ratio." The carriage ratio of the URS is much higher than that of most bibliographies. The magnitude of the deference shows the meaning of high intensity indexing. Under other systems, unlike the URS Codex, a topic is understated in the index. And, less obviously, topics other than the one carried as a flag in the title are sunk into oblivion; thus "Relations Between France and Indochina," which may be a valuable work on questions of economic development, would probably not be indexed on that questions at all.
To sum up, the URS, when used as in this Codex, thoroughly exposes the facets of a listed document. It makes the documents thoroughly exposes the facts of a listed document. It makes the document thoroughly retrievable.
Frequency counts and supervisory decisions were used to restrict the number of new terms and judge their validity. A URS Dictionary was prepared to help both the analysts and aim has been to preserve the integrity and continuity of what promises to be a useful classification system while, or rather by means of accommodating it to changing tasks and times.
The theory behind the URS Classification System is operational. It asks the question: "Who says, ~Who does what with whom, where and when, by what means, why and how does he know so?" This question leads to the general categories and subcategories of the system, which is presented in its logical form here, along with the truncated terms used in the computerized Index. The advantage of reading the logical classification is that one will learn in a few minutes the general meaning of the truncated terms and can usually go directly and rapidly to the proper terms in the Index.
Finally come the rules for using a publication of the Universal Reference System. They are given here as they are carried in the International Affairs Codex, which, with its over 3,000 document reference and many thousands of index entries, is to appear in May. Four procedures are simply outlined--for persons who would use the CODEX once, for those who would use it on several occasions, for those who would use it for research, and for those who would use it to prepare for teaching.
The literature of classification and information retrieval in the social sciences is multiplying like other literature. Among the general works to be recommended are: Paris: U.F.O.D., 1955; Ge Grolier, E., A Study of General Categories Applicable to Classification and Coding in Documentation (Paris :UNESCO, 1962); Foskett, D. J., Classification and indexing in the Social Sciences. London: Butterworth, 1963; and Gurr, T., and Panofsky, II., eds., "Information Retrieval in the Social Sciences: Problems, Programs, and Proposals." a special issue of The American Behavioral Scientist, Vol. VII (June, 1964), 1-40, 45-70, which includes articles by II. Borko, L. Doyle, J. Allen III, M. Salkoff. J.C. Gardin, P. Ennis, J. Ferguson, P. Lazarsfeld, E. Scheuch, R. Bisco, D. Morrison, J. Apple, K. Janda, E. Garfield, D. Culbertson, G. Martin, V. Davis and C. Ruttenberg.
1. Kyle, B., "Toward a Classification for Social Science Literature," Amer, Documentation, IX, No. 3 (July, 1958), 168-183.
How to use the
UNIVERSAL REFERENCE SYSTEM
for obtaining information and bibliography
GENERAL PROCEDURE EXAMPLE
A. For someone who will use the list only once.
1. Frame your need in one or two words.
1. Relations between Great Britain and the European Economic Community (EEC).
2. Look up the word, in the Index, where its truncated descriptor-term is listed.
2. Find European Economic Community and read "See EEC."
3. Look up the truncated term in the Index.
3. Find EEC.
4. Finding there a number of items, scan their Critical Descriptors just to right (2 to 4 of them) to find what each book or article is most about.
4. Find several items, books (b), long articles (l), short articles (s).
5. Where the critical description does not suffice or more information is needed, read the full list of descriptors carried on the right.
5. Can we also get material on the British Commonwealth and the EEC? Yes.
6. Look up the full citation and annotation corresponding to the reference number at the right of the Index entry.
6. Look up item AO149 in Catalogue and find 95-page symposium by K. Younger and others on Britain and Europe.
B. For someone who will use the list from time to time, or for several types of material.
1. Read the Logical Classification of terms once or twice to grasp the ways in which terms are compressed. Note the full Index itself, where additional terms are brought in.
1. World war I, also won that widely-known institutions are abbreviated or truncated in the Index EEC is a common abbreviation.
2. (Skip 2 above.)
2. (Skip 2 above.)
3. Do 3 to 6 as above.
3. Do 3 to 6 as above.
C. For someone who is using the list as a research tool.
1. You wish to go into the total background of a question according to the latest researches.
1. You wish, for instance, I go into the origins of British-European relations pre-WW II experiences.
2. Repeat 1 to 6 above and also go into the related terms in the Index.
2. Repeat 1 to 6 above and also look up Britain Index and find more books long articles and short one that seem promising.
3. Look them up in Catalogue by number.
3. Look them up in Catalogue by number.
D. For someone who wishes to use the list as a teaching tool.
1. You wish to update a course.
1. You wish to update you course on Conflict in Modern World Society.
2. Scrutinize the master classification of social sciences, logically arranged, Choose terms of your major interest.
2. Find major terms in the logical classification system.
3. Find under each major term of your course a list of selected works alphabetized, indexed, grouped as books, long articles, and short articles.
3. Look up, for instance, Coercion, Forces, Psychology
4. Look up special terms as needed and refer to their Catalogue references.
4. If special topics are employed, such as Nuclear Weapons, look them up too.
UNIVERSAL REFERENCE SYSTEM
TOPICAL AND METHODOLOGICAL INDEX
The truncated descriptors (left column) and their expanded definitions (right column) which follow were employed in systematically computerizing the topics and methods of the Social and Behavioral Sciences.
I. TOPICS (Action pattern described in the work)
1. TIME-SPACE-CULTURE INDEX: Where? This category locates the subject of the work according to these three dimensions.
PREHIST Pre-historic society, prior to ca. 3,000 B.C.
MEDIT-7 Mediterranean and Near East to the Islamic Period (7th Century).
PRE/AMER Pre-European Americas.
CHRIST-17C Christendom to 1700.
MOD/EUR Europe, 1700 to 1918, including European settlements and pre-revolutionary Russia, but excluding Communist countries.
USA-45 USA, 1700 to 1945. (For prior to 1700, see CHRIST- 17C.)
WOR-45 World-wide to 1945: general or not confined to specific categories.
AFR Sub-Sahara Africa.
S/ASIA India, Southeast Asia, and Oceania, including Australia and New Zealand, excepting European settlements.
CHINJAP China, Japan, Korea, including Taiwan and the Chinese and Japanese empires.
ISLAM Islamic World, 7th century to the present
USA+45 USA, 1945 to the present.
L/A+17C Latin America since 1700. (For prior to 1700, see CHRIST-17C.)
EUR+WWI Europe, 1918 to the present, including European settlements, but excluding Communist countries.
COM Communist countries, except China.
WOR+45 World-wide, 1945 to the present: general or not confined to specific categories.
UNIV Universal to man regardless of time space or culture.
2. INSTITUTIONAL INDEX (TYPICAL ROLE):
Who Whom? This category indicates major social institutions and structures that are subjects of the research, or the characteristic role that an individual subject or group of subjects or study take.
KIN Kinship (except nuclear family), clan (tribe, a group comprising a set of families, or generations tied together by myths of blood, community and common origin).
NEIGH Neighborhood: a group whose relations are based upon geographical propinquity in a larger urban setting.
FACE/GP Acquaintance group: voluntary group based on face- to-face association.
SML/CO Small company: 50 employees or less.
LG/CO Middle-sized or large company: more than 50 employees.
INDUS All or most industry.
AGRI Agriculture: including hunting and gathering complexes.
EXTR/IND Extractive industry: such as fishing, lumbering, mining, etc.
PROC/MFG Processing or manufacturing industry.
DIST/IND Distributive system: the means of matching goods and users.
MARKET Marketing system: a distributive system in its sales aspect.
SERV/IND service industry (does not produce a tangible commodity).
FINAN Financial service: services on money matters, especially those conducted on a large scale, e.g. banks, insurance systems, securities, exchanges, etc.
COM/IND Communication and transportation industries.
VOL/ASSN Voluntary association (any group composed of individuals unimpaired from quitting on the functional, local, national, and international levels).
SECT Church, sect, religious group.
SCHOOL School (except University): primary and secondary schools, other formal educational institutions.
R+D Research and development group (independent except University): see Research and Development.
PROF/ORG Professional organizations: including guilds.
PERF/ART Performing arts groupings.
U University: including colleges and other institutions of higher learning.
LABOR Labor unions: including autonomous and company organizations (but not guilds).
POL/PAR Political party.
PUB/INST Mental, correctional, and other habitational institutions: hospitals, prisons, etc.
LOC/GOV Local sub-divisions of government.
MUNIC Cities, villages, towns.
PROVS States and province.
NAT/G National government and federalism, including all modern and historical, Western and non-Western autonomous political entities larger than a single village or city.
INT/ORG United Nations and international organizations: including bi- and multi-nation organizations of governmental and qua governmental character.
ECO/DEV Economic system in developed countries a developed country is one making lar applications of available technology existing resources, natural or human.
EC/UNDEV Economic system in developing countries.
INTELL Intelligentsia: those who work with symbols in relatively non-routinized form and ways.
SOCIETY Society as whole: general or not co fined to specific categories.
3. ORGANIC INDEX:
By what? Internal sub-groupings a sub-structures with which the work is concerned. Can ret to aspects of subjects in the Institutional Index.
Deliberative, Groupings performing consultative or gro rule-making functions.
CONSULT Consultants: professional persons w use their skills to help individuals and/groups function more effectively.
DELIB/GP Conferences, committees, boards, a cabinets.
LEGIS Legislatures: a collegial or council branch of the government with form legislative authority.
Research and Development. Basic and applied research in sciences, and design and development of prototypes an processes.
CREATE Creative processes which result in invention, innovation, or artistic achievement and inventive ways of organizing devices processes, and/or human behavior f stated ends. Also innovative modifications of existing practices.
ACT/RES Research and intelligence that is part of and facilities, social action.
PLAN Planning: conscious application of scientific (rational) methods to policy process.
TEC/DEV Development of techniques. Technological change.
EXEC Executive Process: Regularized management of a group's behaviors. (Used only if all of next 4 times are applicable.)
TOP/EX Top executives: heads of state and chic executives of organizations.
MID/EX Middle executives: heads of departments major leaders.
EX/STRUC Executive establishments: the structure functions, organization of private and governmental groups treated impersonal and abstractly for the most part.
ADMIN Behavior of the persons composing and organization structure (except armed forces).
FORCES Armed forces and police: all specialist in management of force and violence.
WORK Workers and work conditions: include both agricultural and industrial situations.
ADJUD Judicial and Adjudicative: Processes concerned with the resolution of disputes and adjudication of rules. (Used only when all of next 3 items are applicable.)
CT/SYS Court systems: formal and semi-formal arrangements for, and processes of, applying law to cases.
LAW Law: ethical directives in a community, deviations from which are met normally by measures to compel conformity or by punishment, applied by public officers.
JUDGE Judges: individuals formally responsible for resolving disputes and/or deciding on sanctions to be applied.
STRUCT Social Structure. (Used only when all of next 4 items are applicable.)
ROUTINE Procedural and work systems: procedures and processes by which decisions are applied, problems are resolved, immediate goals are accomplished, etc.
CONSTN Constitutions: fundamental law of a state, written or unwritten.
CHOICE Choice; Election: modes of deciding alternatives or selecting officers and leaders for structural positions.
CULTURE Cultural patterns: observable, ordered and repetitious collections of social action within the full scope of a community or socially permitted sub-community, including mores, taboos, and other sets of rules. Coded as SOCIETY all except specific patterning of community rules and practices.
4. SCOPE INDEX (Dimensions of Aggregates Treated): This category indicates the extent and scope of the situation in which the action being considered occurs.
TOT/POP Treats whole number of persons in institutional context: all members of the institutional and /or Organic Indices.
TERR/GP Special territorial sub-aggregates.
STRATA Social strata; class division (persons with similar life chances respecting scarce goods); social mobility.
TRUE/GP Other substantively differentiated sub-aggregates, other than class and territorial (includes sociability groups, cliques, factions, cells).
METH/GP Special methodologically differentiated sub- aggregates (except class and territorial): conceptual distinctions; social categories (persons with similar status) and statistical aggregates (persons possessing a similar social attribute by virtue of which they can logically be grouped together).
5. PERSONALITY INDEX: In what characterization? Behavior indicated as treated may be relevant to actors or actions.
PERSON Includes both personality (total set of behavior patterns which characterize a particular person) and human nature (broadly speculative comment on the nature of man).
COMMUN Interpersonal communication (symbolizing exchange between people).
PERCEPT Includes both perception (detection and interpretation of sense data or ideas) and cognition (the learning process, arrangement of perceptions).
RIGID/FLEX Rigidity/flexibility; and exclusive/inclusive: degree of responsiveness to new ideas, methods and people.
DISPL Includes displacement (shifting of interest from one object to another in response to a stimulus irrelevant to the second) and projection (one's imputation to others of motives that he himself possesses).
ATTIT Attitudes (public and private), opinions, ideology (systems of belief, unconscious or conscious).
DRIVE Includes both drive (any internal conditions that arouse and maintain behavior, either independently or in conjunction with external stimuli) and morale (active motion toward group goals). Includes antithesis.
BIO/SOC Bio-social processes: includes studies of drugs, sexuality biologically treated, psychosomatic phenomena, etc.
SUPEGO Conscience, superego, and responsibility.
6. VALUES INDEX: For what goals? Desired situations and conditions held or advocated by subjects of the work or discussed by author (including the opposite non-values).
PWR Power, participation in decision-making (including weakness).
WEALTH Wealth, access to goods and services (including poverty).
HEALTH Well-being, bodily and psychic integrity, health (sickness).
MORAL Rectitude, morality (immorality).
RESPECT Respect, social class, stratification (contempt, disrespect).
KNOWL Enlightenment, finding and spreading of knowledge (ignorance).
LOVE Affection, friendship, sex relations, direct attachments to kinds of people (includes hatred).
SKILL Skill, dexterity, practical competence (incompetence).
ORD/FREE Security, order, restraint (change, experience, freedom).
ALL/VALS All, or six or more of the above.
7. MANIPULATIVE TACTICS INDEX: By what tactics? Includes influencing tactics used by the actors under consideration.
DOMIN Employ symbols of authority (domination).
LEGIT Employ symbols of legitimacy (reliance on the lawful condition or quality of an act of person).
EDU/PROP Employ symbols of education, propaganda, persuasion.
COERCE Employ physical coercion-force and violence.
ECO/TAG Employ economic measures or tactics (policies and pressures affecting the financial or goods position of subject).
II. METHODOLOGY (Used of dealt with by author)
8. ETHICAL STANDARDS APPLIED: Author evaluates actions and persons against a preferred standard of right and wrong (either author's or actor's) or deals with controversy about ethical standards.
LAW/ETHIC Ethics of laws and court processes.
ETHIC Personal ethics (private and professional).
POLICY Treats ethics of public policies and making public policies.
9. ETHICAL BASE INDEX: This category refers to the position preferred by (or ideology of) the author of the work under consideration.
VAL/FREE Value free, objective.
MARXIST Marxist communist in viewpoint or presents such views for educational purposes.
SOCIALIST Socialist (except communist).
WELF/ST Welfare state.
PLURIST Pluralist: prefers socio-political order composed of autonomous groups.
MYSTIC Prefers other-wordly: non-earthy interests; mystical.
OLD/LIB Old-liberal, laissez-faire, in outlook or treatment.
RELATIV Relativist: standards are held to be personal and unprovable.
CATH Roman Catholic.
MAJORIT Majoritarian, consensual: belief in the rightness of "the people" and majority principle.
CONVNTL Conventional: unsystematic acceptance of values in common currency.
TRADIT Traditional and aristocratic: government by the "best" or by (and in the name of) the oldest groups.
TECIINIC Technocratic: prefers socio-political order dominated by technicians.
10. FIELD INDEX: Fields of study, discipline, or methodological approach.
SOC Sociology (including cultural anthropology, and social psychology of groups).
PSY Psychology (including social psychology of individuals, and psychological anthropology).
ECO Economics and Economic Enterprise.
MGT Administrative Management.
GEOG Demography and Geography.
POL Deals with Political and Power process.
HEAL Health sciences.
HIST History (including current events).
ART/METH Fine Arts, Graphic, Performing Arts.
PHIL/SCI Scientific and Philosophy of Science.
HUM Methods of the "Humanities."
METH/CNCPT Methodological concepts such as "time," "space," "category," "relation," "function," "value," "validity," "reliability," "quantity," "proportion," "generalization."
CONCPT Subject-matter concepts such as "power," "government," "liberty," "human nature," "learning," "family."
MYTH Treats assumptions unconsciously accepted by most members of a social category. Fictions: social ideas without factual basis accepted as true for convenience and expediency.
NEW/IDEA Word inventions, new concepts and ideas.
12. LOGIC, MATHEMATICS AND LANGUAGE.
LOG/LING The forms of logic and language: linguistics.
MATH Mathematics: intensive logical analysis of shape, arrangement, quantity, sequence.
STAT Statistics: actual quantitative ordering of data.
INDEX Numerical indices and indicators, index weights.
QUANT Deals with the nature and limits of quantification.
STYLE The styles of scientific communications: criticism of, suggestions for terminology, style of presentation, etc.
13. DIRECT OBSERVATION.
SELF/OBS Self-observation, including psycho-drama.
OBS Trained observing, including participant observation.
CONT/OBS Controlled direct observation; use of precise categories and standardized tools of observation.
RECORD The recording of direct observations: alternative methods, units, criticisms, etc. (But not content analysis, q.v.)
OBS/ENVIR Social milieu of and resistances to observations.
14. INTERVIEWS: Based on oral responses.
INT Interviews, whether short or long, in general. (Not used if specific problems below are treated.)
UNPLAN/INT Impromptu interviews.
DEEP/INT Depth interviews: simple psychoanalytic, hypnotic, or with drugs.
STAND/INT Standardized interviews.
REC/INT Deals with the recording, systematizing and analyzing of interviews: alternative methods, criticisms, etc.
RESIST/INT Deals with social resistance to interviewing.
15. QUESTIONNAIRES : Based on written rather than oral responses.
QU General questionnaires, short or long. (Not used if more specific problems are treated.)
QU/SEMANT Semantic and social problems of questionnaires: discussion and criticism.
DEEP/QU Depth questionnaires, including projective approach.
SYS/QU Systematizing and analyzing questionnaires.
16. TEST AND SCALES : Methods of distinguishing among objects (individuals) by degree to which they possess a given characteristic, scoring and ranking them in a population.
TEST Theory and uses of tests and scales.
APT/TEST Aptitude tests.
PROJ/TEST Projective tests.
PERS/TEST Personality tests: tests for data on behavior, motivation, morale, etc.
KNOW/TEST Tests for factual knowledge, discrete beliefs, or abilities.
17. UNIVERSES AND SAMPLING : A sample is a smaller representation of a larger whole called a "universe".
CENSUS Census: enumeration of a population with classified social and economic statistics.
SAMP/SIZ Size and techniques of sampling.
SAMP The sample survey in general.
18. ANALYSIS OF TEMPORAL SEQUENCES.
TIME/SEQ Chronology and genetic series: origins and temporal careers of men, institutions processes, etc.(Includes no single individual case.)
HIST/WRIT Deals with the writings of history; historiography.
BIOG Includes personal history: biography, personality development, and psychoanalysis.
TREND Projection of historical trends: including individual and social.
19. COMMUNICATION CONTENT ANALYSIS.
DOC/ANAL Conventional content analysis: records, research, documentary analysis.
CON/ANAL Quantitative content analysis: objective, systematic and quantitative description of the manifest content of communication.
20. INFORMATION STORAGE AND RETRIEVAL.
THING/STOR Artifacts and material evidence.
OLD/STOR Conventional systems: libraries, books, records, tape, film, as well as the human brain.
COMPUT/IR Mechanical and electronic developments: for information retrieval.
21. GRAPHICS AND AUDIO-VISUAL TECHNIQUES: Uses in the research and /or in the presentation.
CHARTS Graphs, charts, diagrams, and maps.
AUD/VIS Film and sound (including photographs)
PROG/TEAC Programmed instruction (with or without teaching machines).
22. EXPERIMENTATION: Arrangement of conditions under which a phenomenon to be studied will take place, with view towards ascertaining the influences of these condition on that phenomenon.
HYPO/EXP Hypothetical experimentation: intellectual constructs.
LAB/EXP Laboratory experiments.
SOC/EXP "Social" experimentation under uncontrolled conditions or situations in which repetition is impossible.
23. MODELS: Intellectual representations of objects or processes, for instructional or analytic purposes.
ORG/CHARTS Blueprints and organization charts.
STERTYP Stereotypes: simplified statements applied to a group: true or false generalizations which predict. Ideologies: set unconscious propositions which purport to explain, justify, and prescribe action Utopias: wholesale social schemes.
SIMUL Scientific models: the properties and interactions of the real object of process are abstracted and expressed as a set of mathematical equations or other logic relationships.
DECISN Decision theory and game theory.
24. GENERAL THEORY: Work provides a large scale or total interpretation of the events and people it deals with.
GEN/LAWS Systems and approaches based on substantive relations: scientific laws of society, such as idealism, economic determinism functionalism, self-interest (including the pleasure principle) and humanism.
GEN/METH Systems based on methodology, such as pragmatism, sociometry, field theory, psychoanalysis, positivism, and histories cycles.
III. UNIQUE DESCRIPTORS: Terms added to the TOPICAL AND METHODOLOGICAL INDEX. Items for this category were selected for their utility in the given CODEX( on International Affairs). Proper names are not listed here.
ARMS/CONT Arms Control and Disarmament.
BAL/PAY Balance of Payments.
BAL/PWR Balance of Power.
BER/BLOC Berlin Blockade.
COLD/WAR Cold War.
ECSC European Coal and Steel Community.
EEC European Economic Community (The Common Market).
FAO Food and Agricultural Organization.
FOR/AID Foreign Aid.
FOR/POL Foreign Policy.
FOR/TRADE Foreign Trade.
GUERRILLA Guerrilla Warfare.
ILO International Labor Organization.
INT/LAW International Law.
INT/TRADE International Trade.
LEAG/NAT League of Nations.
NAZI Nazi Germany.
NUC/PWR Nuclear Power.
NUC/WEAP Nuclear Weapons.
OAS Organization of American States.
OEEC Organization for European Economic Cooperation.
PARL British Parliament.
RACE/REL Race Relations.
SPACE Outer Space, Space Law.
SUEZ Suez Crisis.
UN United nations.
UNESCO United Nations Educational Scientific and Cultural Organization.
WEAPON Weapons, non-nuclear.
EXTRACT FROM URS DICTIONARY
(N.B.: The slashed "O" used below is on the experimental computer-print. It will be an ordinary "O" on the final printing.)
The items of the dictionary are automatically placed in alphabetic order as they belong in the Index. They are not run together as in this sample.
PROF/ORG...... PROFESSIONAL ORGANIZATIONS. INCLUDING GUILDS.
PROG/TEAC....... PROGRAMMED INSTRUCTION (WITH OR WITHOUT TEACHING MACHINES).
PROJECTION (ONE'S IMPUTATION IS OTHERS OF OWN MOTIVES).....SEE DISPL
PROJECTION APPROACH (QUESTIONNAIRES)........ SEE DEEP/QU. PROJ/TEST
PROJ/TEST....... PROJECTIVE TESTS.
PROPAGANDA....... SEE EDU/PROP
PROVINCIAL GOVERNMENT...... SEE PROVS
PROVS........ STATE AND PROVINCE. SUB-NATIONAL GOVERNMENT.
PAY...... PSYCHOLOGY (INCLUDING SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY OF INDIVIDUALS. AND PSYCHOLOGICAL ANTHROPOLOGY).
PSYCHOANALYSIS....... SEE BIOG. PSY
PSYCHOANALYSIS (AS GENERAL THEORY....... SEE GEN/METH
PSYCHOANALYTIC INTERVIEW........ SEE DEEP/INT
PSYCHO-DRAMA....... SEE SELF/OBS
PSYCHOLOGICAL WARFARE........ SEE EDU/PROP + PSY. COLD/WAR
PSYCHOSOMATIC PHENOMENA....... SEE BIO/SOC
PUB/INST....... MENTAL. CORRECTIONAL. AND OTHER HABITATIONAL INSTITUTIONS HOSPITALS. PRISONS. ETC.
PUBLIC HEALTH PROGRAMS AND SCIENCES..... SEE HEAL
PUBLIC OPINION......... SEE KNOW/TEST. ATTIT
PWR......... POWER. PARTICIPATION IN DECISION-MAKING (INCLUDING WEAKNESS). SEE ALSO ALL/VALS
QU.......... GENERAL QUESTIONNAIRES. SHORT OR LONG. SEE ALSO SPECIAL FORMS OF QUESTIONNAIRES.
QUANT........ DEALS WITH THE NATURE AND LIMITS OF QUANTIFICATION.
QU/SEMANT....... SEMANTIC AND SOCIAL PROBLEMS OF QUESTIONNAIRES. DISCUSSION AND CRITICISM.
R+D....... RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT GROUP (INDEPENDENT EXCEPT UNIVERSITY).
RACE/REL......... FACE RELATIONS. SEE ALSO STRATA + ATTIT. RESPECT. SPECIFIC GROUPS
RACE RELATIONS....... SEE RACE/REL
REC/INT....... DEALS WITH THE RECORDING, SYSTEMATIZING AND ANALYZING OF INTERVIEWS, ALTERNATIVE METHODS, CRITICISMS, ETC.
RECORD..... THE RECORDING OF DIRECT OBSERVATIONS, ALTERNATIVE METHODS, UNITS, CRITICISMS, ETC. (BUT NOT CONTENT ANALYSIS, G.V.)
RECORDS-KEEPING..... SEE OLD/STOR
RECORDS RESEARCH...... SEE DOC/ANAL
RECTITUDE...... SEE MORAL
RELATIV........ RELATIVIST, STANDARDS ARE HELD IS BE PERSONAL AND UNPROVABLE.
RELATION (AS CONCEPT)....... SEE METH/CONCPT
RELIABILITY (AS CONCEPT)...... SEE METH/CONCPT
RELIGIOUS GROUP...... SEE SECT
REPARATIONS...... SEE REPAR, SEE ALSO ECO/TAC + CRERCE + WEALTH
RESEARCH AND DVEVLOPMENT GROUP (INDEPENDENT EXCEPT UNIVERSITY)... SEE R + D
RESEARCH AND INTELLIGENCE FOR ACTION... SEE ACT/RES
RESEARCH METHODS....... SEE UNDER SPECIFIC TECHNIQUES
RESIST/INT......... DEALS WITH SOCIAL RESISTANCE TO INTERVIEWING.
RESPECT..... RESPECT, SOCIAL CLASS, STRATIFICATION (CONTEMPT,
RESPONSIBILITY...... SEE SUPEGO
Noteworthy Features of the Universal Reference System
1) The largest indexed bibliography of human sciences materials to have been assembled.
2) The broadest disciplinary coverage of any existing scholarly compilation.
3) References to books, magazines, and other forms of documents ordinarily listed separately and diffusely.
5) Annotation included for each item.
6) Classification that is behaviorally and operationally based.
7) Emphasis on methodology and technique of the described studies in the index system.
8) Screening of items for minimum quality control.
9) Reliability tests for selection and coding processes.
10) Complete flexibility for all individual, group, and public retrieval purposes.
11) Use of most efficient modern devices at every stage of screening, storage, retrieval, publication, and servicing, including automatic print-outs.
12) Provision for rapid and continuous increments.
13) Technical adaptation of earlier to all later phases.
14) Prepared in full consultation with librarians, computer technologists, administrative experts, and subject-matter specialists.
15) Cost calculations geared to increments of users' time and motion saved, and to permanent uninterrupted operations.
A0027 SILCOCK T. H.
RESEARCH IN SOUTHEAST ASIAN UNIVERSITIES. AUSTRALIAN OUTLOOK, 17 (DEC. 63), 295-305.
SOUTHEAST ASIA HAS ITS OWN RESEARCH NEEDS BUT OVER-RELIANCE ON ACADEMIC STANDARDS OF DEVELOPED AREAS IS LEADING ITS SCHOLARS ASTRAY. A DEEPER INTERNATIONAL UNDERSTANDING IS NEEDED OF THE EFFECTS OF DIFFERENT ENVIRONMENTS ON ACADEMIC ORGANIZATION AND VALUES.
S/ASIA R+D INTELL CREATE ATTIT RESPECT KNOWL EDU/PROP ASSN/GP VAL/FREE OBS TREND STERTYP.=
A0028 SIRSIKAR V. M.
A STUDY OF POLITICAL WORKERS IN POONA, J. UNIV. POONA, 13 (JAN. 61), 1-83.
AN EXTENSIVE FIELD STUDY WHICH ATTEMPTS TO DELINEATE THE CONCRETE STRUCTURE OF POLITICAL POWER IN POONA, INDIA.
S/ASIA POL/FAR ACTION/RES ATTIT PWR ORD/FREE DOMIN LEGIT EDU/PROP VAL/DISTRIP VAL/FREE POL MATH LENG/INT LENG/QU CHARTS.=
A0029 WRIGHT G.
RURAL REVOLUTION IN FRANCE "THE PEASANTRY IN THE TWENTIETH CENTURY, STANFORD" STANFORD U. PRESS, 1964,271 PP., $6.00
TRACES GRADUAL AWAKENING OF FRENCH PEASANTRY--AT FIRST TO A NEW SELF-CONSCIOUSNESS, AND LATER TO SYNDICALIST ORGANIZATION AND POLITICAL ACTION, DISCUSSES RIVAL EFFORTS OF THE COMMUNISTS AND CATHOLICS IN THE COUNTRYSIDE. CONCLUDES WITH AN ANALYSIS AND TENTATIVE ASSESSMENT OF THE FIFTH REPUBLIC S NEW COURSE IN THE AREA OF RURAL REFORM.
MOD/EUR EUR+WWI AGRI POL/PAR DELIB/GP LEGIS LAW CHOICE CULTURE RIGID/FLEX ATTIT PWR HEALTH EDU/PROP COERCE DCO/POL STRATA
VAL/DISTRIB VAL/FREE POL STAT CENSUS CHARTS FRANCE RDV.=
A0030 WRIGHT J.P. JR.
"MUSLIM LEGISTATORS IN INDIA." PROFILE OF A MINORITY ELITE, J. ASIAN STUD., 23 (FEB, 64) 253-67.
"IN CONCLUSION, WE FIND A MUSLIM MINORITY ELITE IN THE LEGISLATURES OF INDIA WHICH IS NOT VERY DIFFERENT FROM THE REST OF THE INDIAN POLITICAL ELITE AND WHICH THEREFORE IS FAR FROM A CROSS-SECTION OF ITS OWN RELIGIOUS COMMUNITY."
S/ASIA VOL/ASSN SECT NATL/G LEGIS PWR STRATA ASSN/GP METH/GP VAL/FREE POL STAT SAMP/SIZ DOC/ANAL CHARTS.=
A0031 ALDERFER P.U.
LOCAL GOVERNMENT IN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES, NEW YORK, MCGRAW-HILL, 1964, 251 PP., $8.50.
AN OVERVIEW OF EVOLVING STRUCTURES ON A COUNTRY-BY-COUNTRY PASIS, AND A SURVEY OF FUNCTIONS AND PROBLEMS, WITH POLICY SUGGESTIONS, UNINSPIRED BUT COMPREHENSIVE.
A/ASIA CHINJAP L/A+17C COM AGRI LOC/GOV MUNC PROVS ADMIN ROUTINE CHOICE PWR COMIN ASSN/GP TERR/GP CONVNTL MGT POL CONCPT DOC/ANAL POLICY.=
A0032 FIRTH R., YAMEY B.S.
CAPITAL, SAVING AND CREDIT IN PEASANT SOCIETIES. CHICAGO, ALDINE PUBLISHING CO., 1964, 399 PP., $8.95.
SEVENTEEN ESSAYS ON THE INTERACTION OF ECONOMIC AND SOCIAL FACTORS IN PEASANT LIFE. BASED ON STUDIES FROM ASIA, OCEANIA, THE CARIBBEAN, AND MIDDLE AMERICA. A PIONEERING WORK USING A COMBINATION OF ECONOMIC AND ANTHROPOLOGICAL TECHNIQUES OF INQUIRY.
WOR-45 WOR+45 FAM AGRI FINAN ACTION/RES HEALTH CEO/POL VAL/DISTRIB VAL/FREE SOC ECO CONCPT STAT CHARTS CARIB.=
A0033 KATZ S.M., MCGOWAY P.
A SELECTED LIST OF U.S. READINGS ON DEVELOPMENT, WASHINGTON, D.C. AGENCY FOR INT. DEVELOPMENT, 1964, 363 PP., $1.25 PAPER.
AN ANNOTATED BIBLIOGRAPHY OF CURRENT AMERICAN RESEARCH PAPERS. ACADEMIC STUDIES, AND OPERATIONAL REPORTS ON MAJOR AREAS OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY. PREPARED FOR THE UNITED NATIONS CONFERENCE ON THE APPLICATION OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY FOR THE DENEFIT OF THE LESS DEVELOPED AREAS.
WOR+45 INDUS AGRI EC/UNDEY SOCIETY DELIB/GP ACTIONS/RES PLAN TEC/DEV CULTURE COMMUN HEALTH EDU/PROP ECO/POL STRATA VAL/DISTRIB VAL/FREE ECO PHIL/SCI STAT OBS DOC/ANAL CHARTS SIMUL.=
A0034 READER D.H.
A SURVEY OF CATEGORIES OF ECONOMIC ACTIVITIES AMONG THE PEOPLES OF AFRICA, AFRICA, 34 (JAN. 64), 28 45.
GRAGHICALLY AND TEXTUALLY OUTLINES REPORTED ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT WITHIN AND OUTSIDE THE SUBSISTENCE SECTOR IN TRADITIONAL AFRICAN SOCIETIES. ASSESSES TRIBAL ECONOMIC ATTITUDES DISCLOSED AND ON THIS BASIS APPRAISES PROBABLE REACTIONS TOWARD FURTHER ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT WITH REFERENCE TO THE TECHNOLOGICAL, INDUSTRIAL, AND COMMERCIAL DIMENSIONS AREAS, A SUBSISTENCE AREA, NON-MONETARY TRADING AREAS, MIXED MONEY-EARNING AREAS, AND AN INDUSTRIAL AREA.
AFR KIN INDUS AGRI MARKET EC/UNDEV TEC/DEV WORKS WEALTH HEALTH SKILL TOT/POP TERR/GP VAL/FREE ECO GEOG METH/CONCPT DOC/ANAL CHARTS.=
A0035 SEERS D. ED.
CUBA THE ECONOMIC AND SOCIAL REVOLUTION, CHAPEL HILL U. OF NORTH CAROLINA PRESS, 1964, 432 PP., $ 7.50.
COMPARES THE POST-REVOLUTIONARY SITUATION IN CUBA WITH THAT BEFORE 1959. REVIEWS THE PROBLEMS INHERITED BY THE CASTRO GOVERNMENT AND HOW THEY DIFFERED FROM THE PROBLEMS ENCOUNTERED BY OTHER 20TH CENTURY REVOLUTIONS. SUCH AS THOSE OF YUCOSLAVIA AND THE SOVIET UNION.
L/A+17C INDUS AGRI SCHOOL U DELIB/GP ACTION/RES PLAN WORKS REGID/FLEX ATTIT ALL/VALS BOMIN EDU/PROP COERCE ECO/POL STRATA VAL/DISTRIB VAL/REEE ECO POL STAT OBS TIME/SEO DOC/ANAL CUBA REV USSR YUGO.=
A0036 SHETTY M.C.
SMALL-SCALE AND HOUSEHOLD INDUSTRIES IN A DEVELOPING ECONOMY, NEW YORK, ASIA PUBLISHING HOUSE, 1963, 232 PP., $ 7.00.
DEMONSTRATES THAT SMALL-SCALE INDUSTRIES ARE ESSENTIAL AND A CONTINUING ELEMENT NOT ONLY IN UNDERDEVELOPED COUNTRIES BUT ALSO IN INDUSTRIALLY ADVANCED ONES LIKE JAPAN AND U.S.A. FINDINGS ARE SUPPORTED WITH A WEALTH OF DATA ON THE STRUCTURE AND OPERATIVE CONDITIONS OF CAREFULLY-SELECTED SAMPLE ESTABLISHMENTS.
CHINJAP WOR+45 INDUS FINAN ECO/DEV EC/UNDEV ACTION/RES SKILL ECO/POL VAL/FREE ECO STAT OBS SAMP.=
A0037 SKINNER E.P.
THE MOSSI OF UPPER VOLTA THE POLITICAL DEVELOPMENT OF A SUDANESE PEOPLE, STANFORD, STANFORD U. PRESS, 1964, 236 PP., $6.50.
COMPREHENSIVE, FIELDWORK-BASED DESCRIPTION OF THE SOCIAL, ECONOMIC, LEGAL, AND RELIGIOUS FORCES THAT BUTTRESSED THE FEUDAL MOSSI POLOTICAL SYSTEM OVER SEVEN CENTURIES. THE EFFECTS OF MODERN POLITICAL INSTITUTIONS ON IT AND ITS MEMBERS, AND ITS COLLAPSE IN 1960.
AFR FAM KIN AGRI SECT PROVS POL/PAR DELIB/GP TOP/EX EX/STRUC FORCES CT/SYS LAW CHOICE CULTURE PWR WEALTH ORD/FREE DOMIN LEGIT EDU/PROP COERCE ASSN/GP TERR/GP VAL/DISTRIB VAL/FREE SOC POL MYTH OBS IMPROMP/INT TIME/SEO DOC/ANAL U/VOLTA.=
A0038 SKLAR R.L.
NIGERIAN POLITICAL PARTIES POWER IN AN EMERGENT AFRICAN NATION, PRINCETON PRINCETON U. PRESS,1963, 578 PP., $12.50.
A DEFINITIVE STUDY OF PARTIES DURING THE FINAL PHASE OF BRITISH RULE. THE UNIFYING THEME IS THE POLITICAL CONVERGENCE OF THE TROWTH OF NATIONALISM. THE PERSISTENCE OF CULTURAL PARTICULARISM, AND THE CRYSTALLIZATION OF EMERGENT CLASS INTERESTS, WITH CASE STUDIES OF SITUATIONS OF PARTY COMPETITION AND INTRA-PARTY CONFLICT, EXHAUSTIVE IN DETAIL.
AFR EUR+WWI NATL/G POL/PAR SOCIETY DELIB/GP LEGIS EX/STRUC ROUTINE CHOICE CULTURE COMMUN PERCEPT ATTIT PWR ORD/FREE DOMIN EDU/PROF STRATA TERR/GP VAL/DISTRIB VAL/FREE SOC POL CONCPT OBS IMPROMP/INT LENG/INT TIME/SEO DOC/ANAL ELITE NATIONALISM NIGERIA.=
A0039 DE GUZMAN R.P. ED.
PATTERNS IN DECISION-MAKING, CASE STUDIES IN PHILIPPINE PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION, HONOLULU, EAST-WEST CENTER PRESS. 1963, 569 PP., $6.00.
A DETAILED TREATMENT OF THE DECISION-MAKING PROCESS IN THE PHILLIPPINES WITH AN ANALYSIS OF ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS AND THE CONSIDERATIONS INVOLVED IN THE ACTUAL CHOICES MADE PROVIDES SOME EXPLANATION OF THE GENERAL ENVIRONMENT IN WHICH THE PROBLEM AROSE AND OF THE SOCIAL, ECONOMIC, POLITICAL, CULTURAL, LEGAL, AND OTHER FACTORS THAT IMPINGED UPON THE PARTICIPANTS IN THE PROCESS OF MAKING THE DECISIONS.
A Sample page (slightly reducted) of the catalogue of documents of the URS.
INT/ORG TOP/EX FORCES LAW ATTIT PWR WEALTH MORAL RESPECT ORD/FREE LEGIT EDU/PROP COERCE GEOC MYTH TIME/SEO TREND DOC/ANAL POLICY CANADA ISRAEL WAR A0279
AFR SOCIETY DELIB/GP LAW CULTURE WEALTH RESPECT EDU/PROP ECO/POL ASSN/GP SOC STAT DOC/ANAL A0306
AFR KIN INDUS AGRI MAR*** EC/UNDEV WORKS WEALTH HEALTH SKILL ECO GEOG DOC/ANAL CHARTS A0034
POL/PAR CHOICE UGANDA
AFR PWR STRATA POL STAT LENG/INT A0042
PROVS INT/ORG NATIONALISM
AFR LOC/GOV NATL/G CULTURE PERSON COMMUN PERCEPT ATTIT KNOWL ORD/FREE DOMIN LEGIT EDU/PROP POL TIME/SEO DOC/ANAL A0051
POL/PAR CHOICE NIGERIA
AFR DELIB/GP LEGIS CONSTN CULTURE ATTIT SUPEGO PWR DOMIN EDU/PROF COERCE STRATA VAL/DISTRIB POL STAT EDITE A0064
POL/PAR RIGID/FLEX NATIONALISM
AFR ATTIT PWR ORD/FREE DOMIN LEGIT STRATA VAL/DISTRIB TRADIT POL DOC/ANAL STERIYP A0077
AFR PROVS DELIB/GP PLAN ADMIN ROUTINE PWR WEALTH ORD/FREE ECO/POL ECO POL OBS TIME/SEO DOC/ANAL INT/TRADE A0138
AFR PROVS NATL/G RIGID/FLEX PWR WEATH ECO STAT DOC/ANAL A0202
LEGIS POL NIGERIA
AFR SOCIETY DELIB/GP EXEC CONSTN CHOICE PERSON COMMU ATTIT SUPEGO PWR ORD/FREE DOMIN LEGIT EDU/PROP COERCE STRATA STAT TIME/SEG A0215
AFR INT/ORG DIPLOM
FUT NATL/G DELIB/GP PWR RESPECT SKILL ORD/FREE DOMIN LEGIT EDU/PROF ASSN/GP POL OBS TIME/SEG TREND DOC/ANAL A0223
USA+45 EUR+WWI FUT NATL/G POL/PAR EC/UNDEV INT/ORG TOP/EX ATTIT ALL/VALS LEGIT EDU/PROP POL TREND DOC/ANAL POLICY A0232
PROVS NATL/G POL/PAR DELIB/GP PWR ORD/FREE ASSN/GP POL DOC/ANAL REV A0236
LAW SOC CLIIC
AFR FACE/GP MUNIC NATL/GP CONSTN ATTIT ALL/VALS DOMIN VAL/DISTRIB WIST/WRIT DOC/ANAL A0262
TOP/EX PWR WAR
AFR CHRIST-17C KIN DELIB/GP FORCES LAW CONSTN CULTURE PERCEPT ORD/FREE DOMIN LEGIT COERCE STRATA SOC POL HIST LENC/INT TIME/SEO DOC/ANAL A0307
LEGIT POL GHANA
AFR POL/PAR SOCIETY DELIB/GP TOP/EX CONSTN CHOICE CULTURE ATTIT ALL/VALS DOMIN LEGIT EDU/PROP COERCE STRATA VAL/DISTRIB STAT TIME/SEO A0319
WOR-45 FINAN CULTURE ATTIT KNOWL SKILL ECO/POL STRATA ECO MATH STAT TIME/SEO DOC/ANAL A0026
PWR STRATA FRANCE REV
MOD/EUR EUR+WWI AGRI POL/PAR DELIB/GP LEGIS LAW CHOICE CULTURE RIGID/FLEX ATTIT HEALTH EDU/PROP COERCE ECO/POL VAL/DISTRIB POL STAT CENSUS CHARTS A0029
S/ASIA CHINJAP L/A+17C COM AGRI LOC/GOV MUNIC PROVS CHOICE PWR DOMIN ASSN/GP MGT POL DOC/ANAL POLICY A0031
WOR-45 FAM HEALTH ECO/POL VAL/DISTRIB SOC ECO STAT CHARTS A0032
INDUS AGRI EC/UNDEV SOCIETY DELIB/GP PLAN TEC/DEV CULTURE COMMUN HEALTH EDU/PROP ECO/POL STRATA VAL/DISTRIB ECO PHIL/SCI OBS CHARTS SIMUL A0033
COERCE CUBA REV
L/A+17C INDUS AGRI SCHOOL U DELIB/GP PLAN WORKS RIGID/FLEX ATTIT ALL/VALS DOMIN EDU/PROP ECO/POL STRATA VAL/DISTRIB ECO POL STAT OBS TIME/SEO DOC/ANAL USSR YUGO A0035
CULTURE OBS U/VOLTA
AFR FAM KIN AGRI SECT PROVS POL/PAR DELIB/GP TOP/EX EX/STRUC FORCES CT/SYS LAW CHOICE PWR WEALTH ORD/FREE DOMIN LEGIT EDU/PROP
COERCE ASSN/GP VAL/DISTRIB SOC POL MYTH IMPROMP/INT TIME/SEO DOC/ANAL A0037
PLAN ECO CAP/ISM COMM/WEALTH
AFR S/ASIA EUR+WWI INDUS AGRI DIST/IND MARKET COM/IND LABOR NATL/G ECO/DEV EC/UNDEV WEALTH ORD/FREE ECO/POL ASSN/GP VAL/DISTRIB TECHTIC STAT TREND DOC/ANAL A0047
FAM FACE/GP AGRI POL/PAR LEGIS EXEC CT/SYS LAW JUDGE STRUCT CONSTN ALL/VALS DOMIN LEGIT ASSN/GP MARXIST JURID A0081
MOD/EUR EUR+WWI AGRI EXTR/IND PROC/IND COM/INT EC/UNDEV WORKS WEALTH SKILL ECO HIST TIME/SEO TREND DOC/ANAL SIMUL FOR/TRADE A0087
L/A+17C ECO/POL BRAZIL COLUMB
FUT INDUS AGRI FINAN EC/UNDEV CONSULT DELIB/GP PLAT ATTIT WEALTH HEALTH ORD/FREE ECO POL STAT DOC/ANAL POLICY CHILE COLOMB A0186
ADIMIN CHOICE MORROCCO
ISLAM AGRI SCHOOL POL/PAR EC/UNDEV ADMIN FORCES WORKS CULTURE POL STAT LENG/INT CENSUS TIME/SEQ CHARTS MOROCCO A0208
EC/UNDEV FINAN MEX
L/A+17C FUT INDUS AGRI SOCIETY DELIB/GP CULTURE ATTIT HEALTH ORD/FREE ECO/POL ECO POL STAT TIME/SEQ TREND A0218
AFR S/ASIA ISLAM L/A+17C FAM INDUS AGRI LABOR MUNIC EC/UNDEV TEC/DEV CULTURE BIO/SOC EDU/PROP ECO/POL VAL/DISTRIB SOC GEOG TIME/SEQ DOC/ANAL CHARTS A0220
AGRI EC/UNDEV COMM/WEALTH
S/ASIA MOD/EUR EUR+WWI MUNIC PROVS PLAN TEC/DEV WORKS RIGID/FLEX ATTIT PWR WEALTH SKILL ORD/FREE DOMIN LEGIT EDU/PROP COERCE ECO/POL ECO POL HIST TIME/SEQ DOC/ANAL ELITE A0227
COM AGRI POLICY
FUT LOC/GOV MUNIC DELIB/GP TEC/DEV WORK RIGID/FLEX ATTIT WEALTH SKILL ORD/FREE EDU/PROP ECO/POL STRATA VAL/DISRIB ECO STAT DOC/ANAL CON/ANAL A0296
AFR AGRI EXTR/IND TEC/DEV DOC/ANAL CHARTS A0315
NATL/G PLAN MOROCCO ISLAM INDUS AGRI PROC/IND DIST/IND SERV/IND
LOC/GOV ECO/DEV EX/STRUC PWR WEALTH ECO/POL ASSN/GP VAL/DISRIB ECO POL DOC/ANAL A0045
NATL/G POL NATIONALISM
AGR S/ASIA CHINJAP ISLAM USE-45 EUR+WWI COM FUT INDUS AGRI SECT PROVS POL/PAR ECO/DEV EC/UNDEV INT/ORG TOP/EX FORCES LAW ATTIT OWR WEALTH MORAL RESPECT ORD/FREE LEGIT EDU/PROP COERCE ECO/POL VAL/DISRIB SOC PSY ECO GEOG MYTH TIME/SEQ TREND DOC/ANAL POLICY CANADA ISREL WAR A0279
A sample page (slightly reduced) on an Index of the URS, the letters "A,B,C," refer to books, long articles, and short articles, and will appear in a changed position on future publications. The date of the work will also be included, and the number of descriptors diminished by several. Various modes of printing-out are possible, so that each CODEX can be adapted to its audience.