The great variety that often attends the satisfaction of a social need that
different cultures possess is well illustrated by the different ways in which
societies select public officers .
From usurpation to a complicate election system, from curt appointment by superiors to carefully guarded merit systems, there range uncounted general systems for the filling of office .
This writer's research project into election systems, of which the present study forms a part, employs over fifty major criteria for classifying a selection system . The ultimate number of methods of selection and election deserving separate consideration may well reach one thousand ....
The author, asserting that all action is purposive, calls group-performed habitual actions "administration." The task of administrative science is to generalize about all administrative situations. How the science selects and abstracts data and chooses and phrases propositions is described. An administered situation has actors (sponsors or executives, participants, and clientele), targets' (goals), and effects. Goals are substantive and instrumental, and include especially power, wealth, and prestige. Power and control constitute the core value, reflected in the preponderance of deductive operations. Organizations formed around wealth and prestige tend to become executive-power centered. The wealth value is especially compatible with clientele-centered organizations, the prestige value with participant-centered groups. By this analysis of administration confined to statements of fact and relations, the science of administration is defined, giving us an understanding of the variables and of the laws of their interaction. But the elements of this science, as represented by his original definition and conception of administrative action, lend themselves well to translation into the applied science of administration, with which the balance of the essay is concerned.
Three prominent behavioral scientists tell how to discover and identify elite leaders, their groups, and different sectors of influence in world nations and localities. For propaganda, advertising, public relations, global business, military intelligence, and diplomacy, a simple methodology is prescribed. Prepared for U.S. State Department.
The Americans as inheritors of both Indian material habits and psychology, because compatible with cult and anarchism, the twin traits and behaviors of Americans from the beginning. Immigrants from the start are cruelly abused by their precursors, though less the Europeans than the Africans, but in the latter Twentieth Century, the world's most advanced culture develops from the contradictions. Every chapter (in 82 parts) a revelation of advanced novel theory.
(With the death of the two candidates discussed in this article, there is no longer, if there was ever, adequate reason to not reveal that they were Robert E. Merriam and Richard J. Daley [Mayor, 1955-1976]. The city called Metropolis is Chicago. The original anonymity was intended to present an abstract, impersonal, scientific account as an experiment in Political Science. Professor Lindsay Rogers of Columbia University, epitome of the journalist as political scientist, wrote with praise but in a kindly protest against hiding the names. The vivid analysis of a Chicago boss-days campaign employs the advanced techniques of the Chicago School of Political Science. Notable, too, is the early description of how racism excites its counterpart in the stubborn refusal of many blacks to assist whites in the punishment of one of their race, no matter how culpable even in respect to his own people. The O.J.Simpson murder case, coming decades later, surprised most people, with its acquittal of this defendant. His largely black jury was moved by the same ’inverted racism’ of the Chicago black electorate. Actually, white liberal consultants, so Dr. Ithiel Poole, Editor in charge of this POQ issue, informed Alfred de Grazia that there was opposition to printing his article, worrying that it might be thought to be anti-black, which it certainly was not. We note also the demonstration in this article of the beginnings of the white-black split that later broke down the New Deal majority over the nation.)